Post-tensioning can be a stressful way of reinforcing concrete due to the number of things that can go wrong and how severely it can affect progress on the job site.
Learn how the Giatec solution takes tension out of this process and improves efficiency with Icaro Mariani in this exclusive on-demand webinar from Giatec.
Engineering Solutions Lead, Giatec Scientific
Hello everyone, welcome to this webinar session. The title is “Take the Tension Out of Post-Tensioning.” Today we’re going to cover the intrinsic details behind post-tensioning and how this methodology works and how you can use the maturity method to expedite processes on-site.
My name is Icaro Mariani. I am a civil engineer. I also have a master’s degree in Construction Technology, focusing on Concrete Technology. So, this is my area of expertise, and I have more than 10 years of experience in the construction industry. Helping general contractors around the globe to expedite processes with different mixes using different technologies. So today I’m going to touch on the maturity method and how this methodology can help contractors to perform their operations in a much faster and safer way.
So, to start with, our vision at Giatec is truly to revolutionize the construction industry. So, we have the SmartRock® Plus division that works with forward concrete producers to help measure the concrete delivered on-site. So, we want to cover the full cycle here, from concrete being batched at the batch plant, to later ages when you are controlling the strength result when you need to post-tension a slab for example or formwork removal, or even opening traffic on conquered pavements.
Our world presence is quite broad. If you see most of the map is green so we have operations in North America, Central America, also in South America, Asia, Africa, Oceania. So, we have sensors being utilized worldwide because the maturity method is not something that is only being used in North America or any specific region. This methodology has been implemented in several countries around the globe and that’s why we are seeing more and more contractors using this to perform operations in a much efficient way.
So, our agenda today. What is post-tensioning? What are the advantages and disadvantages of post-tensioning? The maturity method, how it works and how it helps post-tension applications. Placement of temperature sensors or the maturity sensors. And in some case studies, I’m gonna bring three different case studies. Showing how we can compare cylinders or cubes casted on-site at the lab, comparing to what is going on with the real concrete element and how it’s important to measure your concrete element.
OK, so let’s start here. What is pause tensioning? The definition according to ACI is a method of prestressing reinforced concrete in which tendons are tensioned after the concrete has attained a specified minimum strength, or a specified minimum age. So, the core of having an efficient post-tensioning process is knowing when you reach that target. So, happens here? We have the tendons being pulled or tensioned, so compression is a force that squeezes our concrete element and tension is something that is being pulled. So our cables, our tendons, are being pulled so are concrete can be in the compressive state. So that is the detail behind the post-tension in application.
So, how it works? I’m going to bring up some charts here to demonstrate how it works. So first of all, we have a post-tension it concrete, so we have a tendon, and it’s passive state without load. So, the cable is banded inside the concrete element, OK. So, if we have another case with load and with our tension, our slab or our beam tends to bend because we don’t have the concrete in its compressive state and the tendons are not pulled. In the other case, we have load, we have tension without load. So, we are kind of converting our moment chart, so in that case, we don’t have any stability with this structure. In the perfect scenario, we have load with tension. So we have a balance in our structure and that’s why in PT elements we can even have thinner sessions because it’s a methodology that puts our reinforcement in the active state. So, this is mainly what we’re discussing about. Our regular reinforced concrete, all the reinforcement is in the passive state. Whereas the post-tensioning concrete, the reinforcement is in the active state. So, this is the main difference between a regular reinforced concrete and a post-tensioning concrete.
Moving forward here, I’m going to discuss about the pros and cons about this methodology. So first of all, design advantages. What we can do with a post-tensioned concrete. We can control cracking. Why is that? Because we have an active reinforcement that prevents cracking, and the water penetration sometimes is also reduced because we’re more careful with the mix design. So probably the mix could contain fibers to reduce retraction, the mix can contain slightly lower water to simmer ratio, conferring to our concrete a more, I wouldn’t say waterproof, but less permeable structure and that’s why the water permutation could be reduced. Another thing is durability. Due to the mix design characteristics, as I was telling you about, the properties and durability are typically higher, so we have a lower water to cement ratio. A low permeability and high strength, therefore, a higher durability. And sometimes we also have SCMs added to the concrete. Casting precautions on-site so we tend to be more careful when we are curing this concrete because it’s a sensitive element because it’s sometimes, and typically is, a thinner element. So, the attention to detail in this type of application is higher. Also, load capacity. As we are having a structure that is under active state, sometimes we can have higher distances between the supports in our structure because we have our structure in the active state.
Operational advantages. First of all, efficiency. Mix is designed to gain strength faster, so it reduces labor costs and speeds up the project. OK, there’s a two-way route over here. So, when we have faster operation, we also need a more specialized manpower to, you know, the labor needs to be more specialized when we’re building this type of structure. But we’re gaining efficiency. So in one way we could have a con that we need a specialized professionals to perform this type of structure or build this type of structure. But on the other hand, we have more efficiency in our process. Economical as well. So generally, PT structures allow thinner elements, slabs, and therefore lower structured weight and this can be reflected even in our foundation. So, if you have a thinner structure, we have a lower weight in our entire structure so we can build a foundation that doesn’t need to be too aggressive. It doesn’t need to be as big as a regular concrete structure that is not post-tensioned. More economical advantages reducing to that is reducing the schedule. So, the early strength that we’re getting with this type of element, we can expedite the processes much faster and therefore the job and the structure can be built in a much faster way.
Now discussing some of the disadvantages about this technology, about this technique, my apologies. So, safety is the first one. So, cable distressing operations are dangerous if not done properly, so this operation must be done carefully. Otherwise, we can have examples such as highlighted here, in which, if the concrete doesn’t have enough strength, we can kind of break our concrete. In this case, it’s almost like an explosion because everything is under tension. The concrete doesn’t have enough strength to withhold that tension and we can have something like this. Tendon repair. Due to its nature, if any necessary repair is needed in our job site, it is going to be sometimes impossible because those tendons are fully embedded into our concrete inside caps. And we also need to put a mortar injection such as epoxy or even sometimes grout to fill up that gap. So that repair sometimes it’s really difficult. And corrosion as well. If necessary, measures are not taken, corrosion can start on the tendons. And corrosion on the tendons is much more critical than in a regular reinforced structure that is on the passive state. Why? Because our tendons are, of course, tensioned, and any corrosion can drastically diminish our capacity load or load capacity. And also, complexity here. As I said before, should you perform a post-tensioning application in a structure, we need a skilled professional team, so that’s another point as well. As a result, the costs can be higher.
Moving through the construction objectives here. So, what is happening with our example here? This is lab, so we need to ensure that our concrete is strong enough to withstand the post-tension. It stresses as early as possible. So, if we translate the areas in our slab here, what is going on? So, at the corners were having tension on the cable. In the areas between the valleys and peaks here in our tendon just representing we have concrete in compression, so that’s what I mentioned before. We need to put the concrete itself in its best state, which is compression. And the tendon itself, as well, in its best state, which would be tension. This is also influenced by two main characteristics: concrete mix design and external factors. Not destruction itself, but how do we achieve this perfect scenario? So, we need to have an appropriate concrete mix design, so it needs to be designed to this type of application and external factors. So how are we going to achieve the minimum strength requirement for our concrete element, to our PT application? So those are the two main factors that are going to affect our shrink results.
So first of all, concrete mix design. How the Google mix design is going to affect low water to cement ratio according to the water to simmer ratio law or even Abrams law. The lower the water through similar ratio, the higher our strength results is. Usually, high cement content type 3. Sometimes, sometimes you can have silica fume, for example, mixed with cement type 2. It’s just each case is a case, but we need to carefully look into the mix design. Special additions such as silica fume, as I said, Fly Ash is to prevent thermal cracking due to the high cement content. Sometimes we can have a concrete mix design with 700 pounds of cement per yard. Translating that to the metric system, we’re talking about almost 400 or 450 kilos per cubic meter. Also, superplasticizer this is something that is basic and the concrete mix design when we’re talking about PT application, we need superplasticizers because we want to reduce our water to similar ratio without adding water and having work ability. Also, not necessarily a high final strength. So, if you look at regular slabs post-tensioned, the mix design could be a 5000 PSI mix. But the string result needed within 24 or two days is 3000 PSI. So, if in if within 24 hours or two days we’re achieving that 3000 PSI. Probably we’re going to achieve 5000 PSI easily, so the final strength is not the focus here.
External factors, so those arrows they kind of represent how the external factors are going to affect. So, the higher the temperature and the weather condition in which this structure is in, we’re going to have a direct reflection in the concrete element. So, the higher the temperature, the higher and quicker we’re going to achieve this result. The lower the temperature it’s lower to achieve the concrete strength. Also, another point: good cream condition. We need to have an optimal moisture content. So, the relativize humidity in the ambient and also the type of cream we are giving our structure is also essential and fundamental to have more durable, and safer operation because we want to make sure that the concrete is cured under the correct ring condition. So, if the contractor is putting tarps on top of this lab for example, using water to make our element, yeah, being cleared in the perfect scenario for two or three days, this is also super important, so attention shouldn’t need off blankets during winter conditions. For example, attention to the use of cylinders to monitor the strength. So, lab cylinders did not represent the Institute strength, so this is another point as well. And I’m gonna discuss that later.
Concrete strength in post-tension and application. So, what is the optional time to post-tension our cables? So, I’m going to go back through that small chart that small visual representation that we had before. So, when concrete has reached the minimum required strength. This is this is the point. This is the core of the presentation today. So, when are we going to achieve that? On the one hand, stress is caused by tensioning of cables and on the other hand we have stresses that concrete can withstand when the stress is caused by the tension cables are equal or lower than the stresses that concrete can withstand, we can stress the cables. So, the turning point when we can tell our our team members our contractor “Hey, go ahead and stretch the cables,” is when this is reached, the stresses the concrete can withstand are higher than the concrete stresses caused by the tension in operation.
So, the challenge here is to know that specific time. If we don’t know that specific time delays can happen in post-tensioning operations, such as no progress on the job site delayed schedule, further expenses with manpower, further expenses with rental equipment, so those are, you know, the four basic points. But we can even have more related to the time that we’re losing when we’re not stressing our cables.
So, another point here, how do we measure that turning point that I was telling about? How do we know that our concrete has enough strength? Typically, field-cured specimens, so we’re going to cast samples on-site and leave them as close as possible to the concrete element, but they do not actually represent the strength result in the concrete element because they have a much smaller volume. Another point is lab-cured specimens, so they are cast on-site and then they are transported to the lab, but they are in the perfect current condition, so they do not represent neither the current conditions nor the instituted concrete. Another point is concrete maturity meters. So, with the maturity method, we can measure the real temperature and strength in the concrete element. So, we can put that those sensors in different locations in the worst-case scenario that I’m going to discuss about later on and we can have a real accurate temperature and shrink reading for an hour instead of concrete.
Just to represent and explain what we are discussing: In this example, in this chart what I have here, I have 3 lines. First of all, the first one is the green, the green temperature profile is our concrete element. So, imagine we are going to have three behaviors here from the same mix design. So, this is the same truck. So, this green line is the concrete that was placed in a regular slab. So, we have the pick of hydration and then the temperature slowly goes down to a regular cream condition like stability with the environment. On the other hand, I have the same mix design in a concrete cylinder that was cured in the lab. So, the first day it stayed overnight at the job site, maybe in a cure box, but it was not perfectly cured, so the temperature drop to the 50s and then we went back to 70s in a regular curing condition. And then, lastly, I have the red line, so the red line is the field cylinder, so it was placed as close as possible to our concrete element, but the temperature drops to the 50s and then he never went back up. Why? Because that is the current condition at that time the concrete cylinder is a small sample that cannot generate as much heat as a concrete element and cannot maintain that same heat. So, the thermal exchange with the environment is drastic.
So, limitation of concrete cubes or concrete cylinders; inaccurate temperature conditions, delayed results, limited information, local variations, and low visibility. So those are, you know, just one of the limitations of concrete cylinders or cubes. Typically, here in North America we always use cylinders.
So now I’m going to touch base. What is the maturity method? Just a broad overview of how it works and how we can implement this maturity method to our job site. So first of all, maturity is a known destructive method to estimate the real time strength development of in place concrete, specifically at early ages no more than 14 days, so it’s perfect for us, for PT, because we’re not focusing on later ages. So, what does the maturity method do? It uses the temperature history of the concrete during the curing process to estimate the strength development. So, the maturity requires a calibration to be used in order to correlate the true strength, so make sure the calibration is a specific to the mix design. If our job site has two or three or four different mix designs, we need to calibrate every single mix with a full fledge maturity calibration, so the maturity calibration is specific to their reactions that are taking place in that specific mix.
What is maturity? Again, so according to ASTM C1074, and also CSA follows ASTM C1074? It’s a technique for estimating the concrete strength that is based on the assumption that samples of a given concrete mixtures attain equal strength if they attain equal value of maturity. So, this is the concept and what ACM brings to us. So, on the left-hand side I have a regular temperature profile of a concrete element on-site on the right-hand side I have a concrete cylinder so that area under the curve M1 and M2 they are equal. But to attain the same area under the curve, and a concrete ceiling there, it takes more time. So, if it takes less time to achieve the same maturity index, we’re gaining time.
How maturity helps. First of all, it increases the safety of job side post-tension operations. Second thing, it provides more control over your job site. Thirdly, more accurate strength results. So, you can know right away at the job site if you’re achieving the necessary strength for your operations. Fourth one is localized measurement of concrete strength. And lastly, save time and money. So, this is super important and just going back through the second point provides more control to your job site, specifically during winter. So, if the strength measurement mattered, our concrete samples could be cured in a controlled environment, not subjected to lower temperatures. Now we are approaching summer, but by the end of the year when you’re approaching winter, if you’re having samples cured at the lab, we’re not being conservative with our results. Why? Because the concrete element is subjected to temperatures, let’s say 30s or even 20s. For sure we’re putting blankets on our concrete element, but the cylinders are not in that specific same concrete condition, so it’s also more control to the job site.
How to implement a maturity calibration. So, the maturity calibration is a unique relationship between maturity index to a function of the concrete temperature, as I was discussing before, versus the concrete strength for each mixture. So, what we have is a chart correlating strength in PSI versus maturity in Fahrenheit hours. This can also be correlated with maturity in Celsius hours versus strength and MPA. So, we build a curve correlating with a minimum of five data points. Further on, how to create this maturity calibration. A minimum of, according to ASTM C1074, a minimum of 17 samples need to be prepared so 15 samples for strength, so five data points divided in five sets of three samples per point and two samples for temperature control. So, in other words, we’re casting a total of 17 cylinders at the job site or at the lab. Curing all those samples in the same condition. 15 samples for breaks and two for temperature control, so those for temperature control were installing one censored in each to track that temperature overtime. So, on post-tension concrete, the focus is stressing the cables, so this is the critical operation. Remember that I mentioned that we have 17 samples. So those 17 samples, two for temperature and 15 for breaks, we have the 15 for breaks in five sets of three and five different ages. How do we establish those five different ages? We need to focus in our critical operation so the data data points can be customized according to the project needs. So, in PT applications, mainly in early ages, the center data point of our breaks needs to be our, you know, around the critical operation. So, two data points before then two data points later. That way we can catch the initial strength progression of our concrete mix design. So, as I said, two points before and two points later. Translating this into the curve, we want to focus this point as the center data point. So, if we have 3000 PSI in three days, we would like to break cylinders at one, two, and then three, and imagine seven and 14. That way we have a nice curve with this strength development.
Critical locations imagine that we were ready, built, or metric calibration, everything is set, we just need to start installing sensors on the concrete element. So how do we decide what is the best location to install? First of all, critical locations, colder locations. Why colder locations? Because we want to be conservative. We want to measure the point in our slab or our beam or our concrete element in which the string development is lower, because we want to be safer when we perform the operation. So where are those locations? Typically, when we have more wind or less sunshade, more surface area for the heat to dissipate. So typically, those are corners, edges, anchor location, potentially top or bottom of this lab. So those are the main points that we want to measure because those are the worst-case scenarios in our slab. If you see on the right-hand side, we have those locations highlighted. So close to anchor location, and for example, close should ads and corners.
Also, structure critical location, so maximum absolute moment. So, if we have in this case, we would install sensors in the mid span. So, we have a high concentration of stresses in that location and that would be also a good place to measure your concrete strength, because that’s where conquered is being subjected to that compression state. Another point is a placement schedule, end of the pour. Imagine that you’re starting the pour at 7:00 AM, but delays happened right in the middle of the city, and for some reason you’re only finishing your placement at 3:00 o’clock. So, we started at 7 and you’re finishing at three. We can never expect that the concrete at 7 is going to have the same strength as the concrete that was poured at three, so the one that was less placed, it’s probably going to take longer to react because, first of all, it was placed seven or eight hours later than the first one. Second of all, it’s only going to hydrate throughout the night, so typically it will be, you know, colder when the concrete is reacting. So, this strength development in that last place that you’re placing the concrete is typically going to be slower. That’s why we want to also place a sensor in that location. So last pour corner or less support slab edge or anchor location.
Now we’re going to move forward to the examples, just to highlight how some contractors already used sensors to expedite their operations in a much faster and efficient way. Example one, a comparison between lab, field, and in-place strength. In this case here. I’m gonna highlight that chart that we saw in the 1st place. So typically, in PT application we have a focus on 3 to 4000 PSI to stress the cables. Usually, the target strength is developed within one, two, three or seven days, so the first week, typically around one and three days. That’s what we usually see, so it depends on the mix and depends on the weather conditions. OK. Now we have that thermal chart that we saw before with the three different temperature profiles, the green one being our concrete element, the blue one being lab, and the red one being the field cylinders. If we translate those temperatures to maturity index, we’re going to see the curve behave differently. So even though we are using the same mix design for all those three examples here, all those three lines, if we have different current conditions, we can never expect the same maturity and therefore the same strength. If I take this chart here on the right, which is maturity Fahrenheit hours, and use a preset maturity calibration to calculate the strength, I’m going to have something like this. So first of all, I have my in places strength, where I’m achieving 3000 PSI roughly within 30 hours. Then if I was relying on lab cylinders, I would achieve the same 3000 PSI in more than 48 hours. So it’s 0.8 day: The gap between when my concrete structured achieved and when the lab cylinder achieved. Lastly, I have my field cured cylinder and what is and how does it look like? 1.7 days. OK, so we have a huge gap here. If we can save almost two days per placement using sensors, we’re saving big time. Also, a small table here getting the raw data numbers, so for 24 hours we were 2500 PSI in our in place is strength whereas our lab was, you know 1570 and our field was 1280 so we have huge differences over here. But when we go through the seven days mark, definitely and typically the lab is going to surpass our concrete element. Why? Because our concrete element already reached the term stability with the environment, and the temperature is lower than the lab which is maintained precisely at 73 degrees Fahrenheit, and that’s why eventually the lab cylinder is going to surpass our concrete element. And the main point here is we can never never expect same strength results if we have different current conditions.
Another example, cold weather; same location at different depths. I know that we already passed the cold weather condition at the moment, but it’s important to notice this. Imagine we have a slab. This slab is 8 inches deep. From the top we have this slab losing heat to the environment. Even though you’re using blankets, sometimes you can still lose heat from the bottom where having. We’re having heat coming from heaters, so the lab is being heated from below and losing heat from above. A post nation might be exposed to different temperatures on top and at the bottom. And this case is a real case, example, we installed sensors at two different depths at the same location, but at two different depths within one inch and four inches. And what we were observed is that the temperature profile was way different from one another. So, the four inches, which was rightly at the middle of the center at the core of our slab, was having almost reaching 100 degrees Fahrenheit. Whereas our sensor that was placed within one inch that was losing heat from above didn’t reach that temperature. It was reaching almost 80 and then trying to reach thermal stability. So, if we translate those two readings to a maturity chart, we’re going to see different maturity accumulations overtime. And once more, if we translate this maturity to strength results were going to have this. So, to achieve the same 4200 PS I target, it took four hours longer through the sensor that was located close to the surface. So, my point here is we need to be careful with the location that we’re placing the sensors It should be close to the edge, closer to anchor location, but also the depth of the installation is also important. If we are installing one sensor closer the surface, we’re catching our worst-case scenario and therefore we’re having more confidence when we’re stressing the cables. So, in this case, if we were to stress the cables precisely at 20 hours, something could have happened. The concrete, you know we could have had issues with the post-tension like cracks or the concrete breaking in some points.
My third and last example is 3500 PSI through stress cables, so generally we are awaiting the call from the lab to proceed with operations. If we don’t have maturity sensors, we’re going to cast those cylinders, wait for a call from the lab to tell us that we are good to go. We are good to stress those cables. The lab breaks those samples in the morning, then generates their report. This is this is not a root and just seeing what usually happens, so they would break the samples in the morning and send an email or call a report to the job site. So, the call from the lab could could take place after 12:00 PM. So, our concrete already has enough strength early in the morning, but you’re only getting to know this in the afternoon. We’re losing half a day here. So, until 12:00 PM until no tension operation takes place, so half a day was lost. So, if we were using the maturity sensors, specifically in this case there is the SmartRock® sensors, we could download information from the sensors. The information would automatically be uploaded to the cloud and all users within the project would be notified that the target of 3500 PSI was achieved. So, it’s super user friendly. If the threshold in the app is achieved, this is notified to all team members, and at least half a day was saved. So, it’s only a matter of any team member going outside close to the structure and downloading data from the sensor. We don’t need a special logger device to download this data, a regular smartphone can do it, and you can download the SmartRock app right now on your phone, available on Google Play Store and also App Store. Going back to the example here, this was a real case example, so in this case our structure, which is the black line, is the in-place strength. So, it was achieving 140 Fahrenheit within a short period of time within 10 or 12 hours, whereas our concrete cylinder was only achieving 85 or 88. Translating this true strength result as we did for the past two cases, were also having different strength developments. So, within 13 hours our concrete element reaching 140 Fahrenheit, is achieving 3500 PSI with the mix design we calibrated using the same mix design, the same calibration through the lab cylinder, we are achieving the same 3500 PSI in 24 hours. So, this brings us that half day again. So, we’re achieving the same result halfway through, so in this case it was 100% faster in the first day. And lastly, through our concrete element when we’re receiving the call from the lab, they should let us know, “Hey, you’re good to go. Stress the cables,” our concrete is not only at 3500 PSI, it’s already at 4400 PSI. So, we’re being super over conservative here and losing time.
Lastly, I just want to touch base on the Giatec solution and show how our sensors could be utilized at the job sites. So, this is the SmartRock 3 sensor. it was fully redesigned to make the life and operations at job sites much much easier and much faster. So, the new sensor it has a QR code, and you can tag the sensor using your mobile device. A logger and transmitter, so this logger has a battery Bluetooth antenna, memory, and the second temperature sensor. So, this sensor is measuring temperatures and therefore strength. Inside this black box, which is the logger, and also at the tip of this temperature cable. The installation strap as well was designed to easily secure the sensor to the top rebar mat so the sensor can be within two inches from the concrete surface so we can download data from the sensor, and activation channel every time that the cable is pulled from the logger. The sensor flashes three times, meaning that the sensor started recording temperatures ratings.
The mobile application. It’s super intuitive. You can go ahead and download the mobile application right now on your phone. You can create projects, create sections, add sensors to a section and the project should be created on the phone and then shared with the rest of the parties involved. Right now, we are phasing out what we called gas mode. So, if you download the app, you have sensors, I encourage you to create a company that is for free and that gives the owner of the company user management capabilities so that way an owner can have users assigned to different role permissions. So, you can have full control over the data and receive alerts when certain thresholds have been achieved.
We also have Roxi. So Roxi is our AI program. So, it’s the first and unique AI program in the world related to concrete technology. So, it suggests pouring time based on temperature history so if you don’t know precisely at what time the concrete was touching and covering the sensor, Roxi can suggest the appropriate time. She also can perform mix validation so Roxi can also identify if the maturity calibration is indeed in accordance with the mixed proportions that we entered in the system and also propose salmon reduction based on mixed performance. If you have a mix design for example, that is expected to perform 3000 PSI in three days and you are performing those same 3000 PSI in 24 hours, Roxi can let you know that you are overperforming and also suggests similar reduction. Lastly, and on the software side we have Giatec 360. So, all the information collected from the app with the sensors goes through our cloud, and in the cloud, we can further analyze all the projects and all the data from the sensors, mass print reports, build temperature differential charts, so there is almost an infnite number of features available on the Giatec 360 software and I encourage you, if you don’t know, go through our website and search more for it. It’s our analytic cloud that can help contractors to analyze the data.
The SmartHub™ solution, quickly here. Here is our remote monitoring system that can be left at the job site to track the temperature and readings and strength from the sensors without needing to have someone there physically connecting to the sensors, so that gives contractors peace of mind to know right away their real time results from the sensors, so they don’t need to go to the job site and download data from the sensors. This hub does this process for you.
And lastly, the SmartRock Plus division, just highlighting that we also have this division that works specifically with concrete producers to expedite and to cover the full cycle. So, we have contractors and also concrete producers.
And that is the end of my presentation. Our contact information is here. If you have any questions you can send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org. If you want to know more about our sensors, get pricing and details. You can also send an email to email@example.com and also my personal company. So, my company email here is firstname.lastname@example.org.
I wanted to thank you all for participating in this webinar, and if you have any questions now, you have our contact information here. Thank you so much.
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