Surf™

Surface Electrical Resistivity Testing

Laboratory device for measuring the surface electrical resistivity of concrete
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Four Measurement Channels

Automatically measure resistivity around the concrete specimen using four channels of 4-probe array, located at 90° from each other.
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Fast & Accurate Data

As an alternative to the RCPT test, electrical resistivity evaluates the quality and durability of hardened concrete in minutes.
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Automatic Report Generation

Easily export and share reports on concrete durability and service-life with project partners and stakeholders.
Giatec Surf

Rapid, Easy, & Accurate Measurements

Surf is a laboratory device for testing the surface electrical resistivity of concrete based on the four-probe (Wenner-Array) technique. Surf. These measurements are used to estimate the resistance of chloride penetration in the concrete. This shows the qualitative relationship between the rapid chloride penetrability test (RCPT) and the surface electrical resistivity of concrete. This surface resistivity meter can also be used for durability-based quality control of concrete and for monitoring the service life design of a structure.

Applications​

  • Performance-based quality control of concrete
  • Estimation of chloride diffusion of concrete
  • Service life design of concrete structures
  • Crack detection in concrete
  • Water content of fresh concrete
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Hardware

  • Optional hand-held probe
  • Fast measurements (8 measurements < 15s)
  • Four-channel four-probe surface resistivity meter

Software

  • Accurate data (±2%)
  • Variable frequency (13 – 100 Hz)
  • Automatic report generation
  • Free user-friendly PC software
Single Measurement Time   1.5 seconds  
Testing Time   (8 measurements) 
Measurement Channels   4
Frequency  13 – 100 Hz


Reading Range

Reading Range Frequency range Accuracy
0.1 – 100 KΩ.cm 13 – 100 Hz ± (0.1+1%)
100 – 1000 KΩ.cm 13 – 100 Hz ± (1+1%)
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  2. Nikkanen, P. (1962). On the Electrical Properties of Concrete and Their Applications. Vaftion Tebsilliren Tutkirndaitos, Tiedotus, Sarja III, Rakennus 60, 75 pages. In Finnish with English summary.
  3. Henry, R. L. (1964). Water Vapor Transmission and Electrical Resistivity of Concrete. Final Report. U. S. Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme, California, Technical Report,R-314, 39 pages.
  4. Tobio, J. M. (1959). A Study of the Setting Process, Dielectric Behavior of Several Spanish Cements. Silicates Zrrdrcsb-iek, 24, 30-35 and 81-87.
  5. Power, T. C. (1958). Structure and Physical Properties of Hardened Portland Cement Paste. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 41(1), 1-6; PCA Research Department, Bulletin 94.
  6. Jones, G., & Christian, S. M. (1935). The Measurement of the Conductance of Electrolytes. VI. Galvanic Polarization by Alternating Current. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 57, 272-280.
  7. Terry, E. M. (1929). ADVANCED LABORATORY PRACTICE IN ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM, 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill, N.Y., 197.
  8. Fricke, H. (1931). The Electric Conductivity and Capacity of Disperse Systems. Physics, 1(2), 106-115.
  9. Frcitag, F. E. (1959). (Dyckerhoff and Widmann Kommanditgesellschaf t). Increasing the Electrical Resistance and Strength of Concrete. German Patent No. 1,064,863. In German. See abstract in English in Chemical Abstracts, 55(8), 7798d.
  10. Budnikov, P. P., & Strelkov, M.I. (1966). Some Recent Concepts on Portland Cement Hydration and Hardening. SYMPOSIUM ON STRUCTURE OF PORTI.AND CEMENT PASTE AND CONCRETE, Highway Research Board Special Report 90, Table 3, 450.
  11. Seligmann, P. (1968). Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies of the Water in Hardened Cement Paste. Journal of the PCA Research and Development Laboratories, 10(1), 52-65; PCA Research Department Bulletin 222.
  12. Monfore, G. E., & Verbeck, G. J. (1960). Corrosion of Prestressed Wire in Concrete. Journal of the American Concrete Institute; Proceedings, 57, 491-515; PCA Research Department Bulletin 120.
  13. Monfore, G. E., & Ost, B. (1965). Corrosion of Aluminum Conduit in Concrete. Journal of the PCA Research and Development Laboratories, 7(1), 10-22; PCA Research Department Bulletin 173.
  14. Andrade, C. (2010). Types of Models of Service Life of Reinforcement: The Case of the Resistivity. Concrete Research Letters, 1(2), 73- 80.
  15. Bertolini, L., & Polder, R. B. (1997). Concrete Resistivity and Reinforcement Corrosion Rate as a Function of Temperature and Humidity of the Environment. TNO report 97-BT-R0574, Netherland.
  16. Bryant, J. W., Weyers, R. E., & Garza, J. M. (2009). In-Place Resistivity of Bridge Deck Concrete Mixtures. ACI Materials Journal, 106(2), 114-122.
  17. Buehlef, M. G. & Thurber, W. R. (1976). A Planar Four-Probe Structure for Measuring Bulk Resistivity. IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 23(8), 968-974.
  18. Butefuhr, M., Fischer, C., Gehlen, C., Menzel, K., & Nurnberger, U. (2006). On-Site Investigation on Concrete Resistivity a Parameter of Durability Calculation of Reinforced Concrete Structures. Materials and Corrosion, 57(12), 932-939.
  19. Chatterji, S. (2005). A Discussion of the Papers, ”A Novel Method for Describing Chloride Ion Transport due to an Electrical Gradient in Concrete: Part 1 and Part 2” by K. Stanish, R.D. Hooton, M.D.A. Thomas. Cement and Concrete Research, 35(9), 1865-1867.
  20. Chini, A. R., Muszynski, L. C., & Hicks J. (2003). Determination of Acceptance Permeability Characteristics for Performance-Related Specifications for Portland Cement Concrete. Final report submitted to FDOT (MASc. Thesis), University of Florida, Department of Civil Engineering.
  21. Edvardsen, C. (2002). Chloride Migration Coefficients from Non-Steady-State Migration Experiments at Environment-Friendly “Green” Concrete. Retrieved from www.gronbeton.dk/artikler/Chloride%20migration%20coefficients.pdf.
  22. Elkey, W. & Sellevold E. J. (1995). Electrical Resistivity of Concrete. Published Report, No. 80, Norwegian Road Research Laboratory, Oslo, Norway, 36 pages.
  23. Ewins, A. J. (1990). Resistivity Measurements in Concrete. British Journal of NDT, 32(3), 120-126.
  24. Feliu, S., Andrade, C., Gonzalez, J. A., & Alonso, C. (1996). A New Method for In-situ Measurement of Electrical Resistivity of Reinforced Concrete. Materials and Structures, 29(6), 362-365.
  25. Ferreira, R. M., & Jalali, S. (2010). NDT Measurements for the Prediction of 28-day Compressive Strength. NDT & E International, 43(2), 55-61.
  26. Florida DOT FM 5-578. (2004). Method of Test for Concrete Resistivity as an Electrical Indicator of Its Permeability, 226.
  27. Forster, S.W. (2000). Concrete Durability-Influencing Factors and Testing. Farmington Hills, MI. Durability of Concrete, ACI Committee, Vol. 191, 1-10.
  28. Gowers, K. R. & Millard, S. G. (1999). Measurement of Concrete Resistivity for Assessment of Corrosion Severity of Steel Using Wenner Technique. ACI Material Journal, 96(5), 536-541.
  29. Hansson, I. L. H. & Hansson, C. M. (1953). Electrical Resistivity Measurements of Portland Cement Based Materials. Cement and Concrete Research, 13(5), 675-683.
  30. Hooton, R.D., Thomas, M.D.A., & Stanish, K., (2001). Prediction of Chloride Penetration in Concrete. Federal Highway Administration, Report No. FHWA-RD-00-142.
  31. Ishida, T., & Li, C. H. (2008). Modeling of Carbonation Based on Thermo-Hygro Physics with Strong Coupling of Mass Transport and Equilibrium in Micro-pore Structure of Concrete. Retrieved from http://www.jsce.or.jp/committee/concrete/e/newsletter/newsletter14/isida.pdf
  32. Jianyong, L., & Pei, T. (1997). Effect of Slag and Silica Fume on Mechanical Properties of High Strength Concrete. Cement and Concrete Research, 27(6), 833-837.
  33. Kosmatka, S. H., Kerkhoff, B., Panarese, W. C., MacLeod, N. F., &McGrath, R. J. (2002). Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures, Seventh Canadian Edition. Cement Association of Canada, 227.
  34. Kessler, R. J., Power, R. G., & Paredes, M. A. (2005). Resistivity Measurements of Water Saturated Concrete as an Indicator of Permeability. Corrosion 2005, Houston, TX, 1-10.
  35. Kessler, R. J., Power, R. G., Vivas, E., Paredes, M. A., & Virmani, Y.P. (2008). Surface, Resistivity as an Indicator of Concrete Chloride Penetration Resistance. Retrieved from http://concreteresistivity.com/Surface%20Resistivity.pdf
  36. Lataste, J. F., Sirieix, C., Breysse, D., & Frappa M. (2003). Electrical resistivity measurement applied to cracking assessment on reinforced concrete structures in civil engineering. NDT & E International, 36(6), 383-394.
  37. Lopez, W., & Gonzalez, J. A. (1993). Influence of the Degree of Pore Saturation on the Resistivity of Concrete and the Corrosion Rate of Steel Reinforcement. Cement and Concrete Research, 23(2), 368-376.
  38. McCarter, W. J., Starrs, G., Kandasami, S., Jones, R., & Chrisp, M. (2009). Electrode Configuration for Resistivity Measurements on Concrete. ACI Materials Journal, 106(3), 258-264.
  39. Millard, S. G., Harrison, J. A., & Edwards, A. J. (1989). Measurements of the Electrical Resistivity of Reinforced Concrete Structures for the Assessment of Corrosion Risk. British Journal of NDT, 13(11), 617-621.
  40. Millard, S. G. & Gowers, K. R. (1991). The Influence of Surface Layers upon the Measurement of Concrete Resistivity. Durability of Concrete, Second International Conference, ACI SP-126, Montreal, Canada, 1197-1220, 228.
  41. Monfore, G. E. (1968). The Electrical Resistivity of Concrete. Journal of the PCA Research Development Laboratories, 10(2), 35-48.
  42. Monkman, S. & Shao, Y. (2006). Assessing the Carbonation Behaviour of Cementitious Materials. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 18(6), 768-776.
  43. Morris, W., Moreno, E. I., & Sagues, A. A. (1996). Practical Evaluation of Resistivity of Concrete in Test Cylinders Using A Wenner Array Probe. Cement and Concrete Research, 26(12), 1779-1787.
  44. Newlands, M. D., Jones, M. R., Kandasami, S., & Harrison T. A. (2008). Sensitivity of Electrodes Contact Solutions and Contact Pressure in Assessing Electrical Resistivity of Concrete. Materials and Structures, 41(4), 621-632.
  45. Nokken, M. R. & Hooton, R. D. (2006). Electrical Conductivity as a Prequalification and Quality Control. Concrete International, 28(10), 61-66.
  46. Parrott, L. J. (1994). Moisture Conditioning and Transport Properties of Concrete Test Specimens. Materials and Structures, 27(8), 460-468.
  47. Polder, R. B. (2001). Test Methods for on Site Measurement of Resistivity of Concrete – a RILEM TC-154 Technical Recommendation. Construction and Building Materials, (15)2-3, 125-131, 229.
  48. Pun, P., Kojuncdic, T., Hooton, R.D., Kojundic, T., & Fidjestol P. (1997). Influence of Silica Fume on Chloride Resistance of Concrete. Proceedings of PCI/FHWA International Symposium on High Performance Concrete, New Orleans, Louisiana, 245–256.
  49. RILEM Technical Committee. (2005). Update of the Recommendation of RILEM TC 189-NEC Non-destructive Evaluation of the Concrete Cover (Comparative Test Part I, Comparative Test of Penetrability Methods). Materials & Structures, 38(284), 895-906.
  50. Savas B. Z. (1999). Effect of Microstructure on Durability of Concrete (PhD Thesis). North Carolina State University, Department of Civil Engineering, Raleigh NC.
  51. Sengul, O. & Gjorv, O. E. (2008). Electrical Resistivity Measurements for Quality Control During Concrete Construction. ACI Materials Journal, 105(6), 541-547.
  52. Sengul, O. & Gjorv, O. E. (2009). Effect of Embedded steel on Electrical Resistivity Measurements on Concrete Structures. ACI Materials Journal, 106(1), 11-18.
  53. Scrivener, K. L., Crumbie, A. K., & Laugesen P. (2004). The Interfacial Transition Zone (ITZ) Between Cement Paste and Aggregate in Concrete. Interface Science, 12(4), 411- 421, 230.
  54. Shi, C. (2004). Effect of Mixing Proportions of Concrete on its Electrical Conductivity and the Rapid Chloride Permeability Test (ASTM C1202 or ASSHTO T277) Results. Cement and Concrete Research, 34(3), 537-545.
  55. Smith, K. M., Schokker, A. J., & Tikalsky P. J. (2004). Performance of Supplementary Cementitious Materials in Concrete Resistivity and Corrosion Monitoring Evaluations. ACI Materials Journal, 101(5), 385-390.
  56. Stanish, K., Hooton, R. D., & Thomas, M. D. A. (1997). Testing the Chloride Penetration Resistance of Concrete: A Literature Review. Department of Civil Engineering University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. FHWA Contract DTFH61-97-R 00022. Prediction of Chloride Penetration in Concrete.
  57. Stanish, K., Hooton, R. D., & Thomas, M. D. A. (2004). A Novel Method for Describing Chloride Ion Transport due to an Electrical Gradient in Concrete: Part 1. Theoretical description. Cement and Concrete Research, 34(1), 43-49.
  58. Stanish, K., Hooton, R. D., & Thomas M. D. A. (2004). A Novel Method for Describing Chloride Ion Transport due to an Electrical Gradient in Concrete: Part 2. Experimental study. Cement and Concrete Research, 34(1), 51-57.
Part No. Item Description
900107 Surf™ – Comprehensive Package Surf™ unit, 100×200 mm (4″x8″) Sample holder, Power adaptor, USB cable, PC Communication software, User manual, Conductive gel, Verification kit, Additional Set of conductive pads, Hand-held probe
900037 Surf™ – D100 Full Package Surf™ unit, 100×200 mm (4″x8″) Sample holder, Power adaptor, USB cable, Communication software, User manual, Conductive gel, Verification kit, Additional Set of conductive pads
900030 Surf™ Device Surf™ unit, Power adaptor, USB cable, Communication software, User manual, Verification kit

The following replacement parts and accessories are available upon request:

Part No. Item Description
900100 Hand-held Probe For measurement of surface electrical resistivity on flat surfaces of large concrete samples/elements
900031 Surface Sample holder-D100 100×200 mm (4″x8″) sample size, Conductive gel, Additional Set of conductive pads
900032 Verification Kit High and low range dongles to verify the performance of the device
900038 Conductive Gel – High Viscosity 250 ml bottle
900033 Test Cable Four-point connection cable with alligator clip
900034 Contact Sponge Set 16 pcs

FAQs

If you are testing saturated surface dry specimens (SSD condition), there is no need to use wet sponges. But, for dry specimens, you must use either wet sponges on the connection tips or the conductive gel provided with the device.

Giatec Surf utilizes a patented technology to automatically measure the surface resistivity 8 times around the cylindrical concrete specimen using its four channels of 4-probe arrays. The PC software then generates the required reports according to the standard specifications.

The current version of Surf has been designed for laboratory applications in the durability-based quality control of concrete. An accessory is under development for Surf that enables this meter for field applications as well.

The four input channels of Surf device can be connected to accessory cables for customization of test-setup for surface resistivity measurement from the surface of concrete elements (e.g. crack detection under load) or be embedded in fresh and hardened concrete for the monitoring of setting and moisture transport, respectively. Giatec’s scientific team will be happy to assist you with your particular research project application.

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