Surf™ | Concrete Surface Resistivity
Concrete Surface Resistivity
Giatec Surf™ is a laboratory test device for rapid, easy and accurate measurement of the surface electrical resistivity of concrete based on the four-probe (Wenner-Array) technique. The Surf™ patented technology automatically measures resistivity around the concrete specimen using four channels of 4-probe array (located at 90° from each other). The PC software generates the required reports according to the standard specifications.
Surf™ can be used to determine the chloride permeability of concrete in accordance with AASHTO TP95 and the upcoming ASTM standard. The measurement data can be used for durability-based quality control of concrete as well as the service life design of concrete structures
The electrical resistivity of concrete is correlated well with important durability parameters such as permeability, diffusivity and in general the micro-structure characteristics of concrete. It is a fast and easy method of quality control during new construction.
Surf™ is a unique device for automatic 4-channel resistivity measurement suitable for investigating the micro-structural properties of concrete including:
- Durability-based quality control of concrete
- Diffusion of chloride in concrete
- Setting time of fresh concrete
- Crack detection in concrete
- Water content in fresh concrete
- Patented technology
- The only device in the market fully compliant with both AASHTO T95 and the upcoming ASTM standard
- Easy to use (see demo on Youtube)
- Variable frequency (13 - 100 Hz)
- Wide resistivity range (0.1 - 1,000 kΩ.cm)
- Fast measurement (8 measurements < 15s)
- Four-channel four-probe measurement
- Limiting moisture loss
- Automatic report generation with PC software
- Fresh concrete testing/crack detection applications
- Continuous measurement mode
- USB connection to computer
AASHTO TP 95-11 provides the test standard for surface electrical resistivity measurement. An ASTM standard is also under development for this test. A copy of the AASHTO test specification entitled "Standard Method of Test for Surface Resistivity Indication of Concrete's Ability to Resist Chloride Ion Penetration" can be obtained from here
remove_circle_outlineadd_circle Technical Specifications
|0.1 – 100 KΩ.cm
||13 – 100 Hz
|100 – 1000 KΩ.cm
||13 – 100 Hz
|13 – 100 Hz
||15 ~ 45 °C
||30 ~ 80%
||0 ~ 60°C
||100-250 V ± 10%, 60Hz
|Dimensions of Surf™
||200 x 160 x 70 mm
remove_circle_outlineadd_circle Purchase Items
||Surf™ - Comprehensive Package
||Surf™ unit, 100x200 mm (4"x8") Sample holder, Power adaptor, USB cable, PC Communication software, User manual, Conductive gel, Verification kit, Additional Set of conductive pads, Hand-held probe
||Surf™ - D100 Full Package
||Surf™ unit, 100x200 mm (4"x8") Sample holder, Power adaptor, USB cable, Communication software, User manual, Conductive gel, Verification kit, Additional Set of conductive pads
||Surf™ unit, Power adaptor, USB cable, Communication software, User manual, Verification kit
The following replacement parts and accessories are available upon request:
||For measurement of surface electrical resistivity on flat surfaces of large concrete samples/elements
||Surface Sample holder-D100
||100x200 mm (4"x8") sample size, Conductive gel, Additional Set of conductive pads
||High and low range dongles to verify the performance of the device
||Conductive Gel - High Viscosity
||250 ml bottle
||Four-point connection cable with alligator clip
||Contact Sponge Set
Q1: Is it required to use wet sponges for resistivity measurement using Surf™?
A: If you are testing saturated surface dry specimens (SSD condition), there is no need to use wet sponges. But, for dry specimens, you have to use either wet sponges on the connection tips or the conductive gel provided with the device.
Q2: How does Surf™ take measurements faster?
A: Giatec Surf™ utilizes a patented technology to automatically measure the surface resistivity 8 times around the cylindrical concrete specimen using its four channels of 4-probe arrays. The PC software then generates the required reports according to the standard specifications.
Q3: Can Surf™ be used for field tests on hardened concrete, or is it just for laboratory use?
A: The current version of Surf™ has been designed for laboratory applications in the durability-based quality control of concrete. An accessory is under development for Surf™ that enables this device for field applications as well.
Q4: How can I use Surf™ for other applications?
A: The four input channels of Surf™ device can be connected to accessory cables for customization of test-setup for surface resistivity measurement from the surface of concrete elements (e.g. crack detection under load) or be embedded in fresh and hardened concrete for the monitoring of setting and moisture transport, respectively. Giatec's scientific team will be happy to assist you with your particular research project application.
- Hammond, E., & Robson, T. D. (1955). Comparison of Electrical Properties of Various Cements and Concretes. The Engineer (London), 199(5165) 78-80, and 199(5166), 114-115.
- Nikkanen, P. (1962). On the Electrical Properties of Concrete and Their Applications. Vaftion Tebsilliren Tutkirndaitos, Tiedotus, Sarja III, Rakennus 60, 75 pages. In Finnish with English summary.
- Henry, R. L. (1964). Water Vapor Transmission and Electrical Resistivity of Concrete. Final Report. U. S. Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme, California, Technical Report,R-314, 39 pages.
- Tobio, J. M. (1959). A Study of the Setting Process, Dielectric Behavior of Several Spanish Cements. Silicates Zrrdrcsb-iek, 24, 30-35 and 81-87.
- Power, T. C. (1958). Structure and Physical Properties of Hardened Portland Cement Paste. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 41(1), 1-6; PCA Research Department, Bulletin 94.
- Jones, G., & Christian, S. M. (1935). The Measurement of the Conductance of Electrolytes. VI. Galvanic Polarization by Alternating Current. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 57, 272-280.
- Terry, E. M. (1929). ADVANCED LABORATORY PRACTICE IN ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM, 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill, N.Y., 197.
- Fricke, H. (1931). The Electric Conductivity and Capacity of Disperse Systems. Physics, 1(2), 106-115.
- Frcitag, F. E. (1959). (Dyckerhoff and Widmann Kommanditgesellschaf t). Increasing the Electrical Resistance and Strength of Concrete. German Patent No. 1,064,863. In German. See abstract in English in Chemical Abstracts, 55(8), 7798d.
- Budnikov, P. P., & Strelkov, M.I. (1966). Some Recent Concepts on Portland Cement Hydration and Hardening. SYMPOSIUM ON STRUCTURE OF PORTI.AND CEMENT PASTE AND CONCRETE, Highway Research Board Special Report 90, Table 3, 450.
- Seligmann, P. (1968). Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies of the Water in Hardened Cement Paste. Journal of the PCA Research and Development Laboratories, 10(1), 52-65; PCA Research Department Bulletin 222.
- Monfore, G. E., & Verbeck, G. J. (1960). Corrosion of Prestressed Wire in Concrete. Journal of the American Concrete Institute; Proceedings, 57, 491-515; PCA Research Department Bulletin 120.
- Monfore, G. E., & Ost, B. (1965). Corrosion of Aluminum Conduit in Concrete. Journal of the PCA Research and Development Laboratories, 7(1), 10-22; PCA Research Department Bulletin 173.
- Andrade, C. (2010). Types of Models of Service Life of Reinforcement: The Case of the Resistivity. Concrete Research Letters, 1(2), 73- 80.
- Bertolini, L., & Polder, R. B. (1997). Concrete Resistivity and Reinforcement Corrosion Rate as a Function of Temperature and Humidity of the Environment. TNO report 97-BT-R0574, Netherland.
- Bryant, J. W., Weyers, R. E., & Garza, J. M. (2009). In-Place Resistivity of Bridge Deck Concrete Mixtures. ACI Materials Journal, 106(2), 114-122.
- Buehlef, M. G. & Thurber, W. R. (1976). A Planar Four-Probe Structure for Measuring Bulk Resistivity. IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 23(8), 968-974.
- Butefuhr, M., Fischer, C., Gehlen, C., Menzel, K., & Nurnberger, U. (2006). On-Site Investigation on Concrete Resistivity a Parameter of Durability Calculation of Reinforced Concrete Structures. Materials and Corrosion, 57(12), 932-939.
- Chatterji, S. (2005). A Discussion of the Papers, ''A Novel Method for Describing Chloride Ion Transport due to an Electrical Gradient in Concrete: Part 1 and Part 2'' by K. Stanish, R.D. Hooton, M.D.A. Thomas. Cement and Concrete Research, 35(9), 1865-1867.
- Chini, A. R., Muszynski, L. C., & Hicks J. (2003). Determination of Acceptance Permeability Characteristics for Performance-Related Specifications for Portland Cement Concrete. Final report submitted to FDOT (MASc. Thesis), University of Florida, Department of Civil Engineering.
- Edvardsen, C. (2002). Chloride Migration Coefficients from Non-Steady-State Migration Experiments at Environment-Friendly “Green” Concrete. Retrieved from www.gronbeton.dk/artikler/Chloride%20migration%20coefficients.pdf.
- Elkey, W. & Sellevold E. J. (1995). Electrical Resistivity of Concrete. Published Report, No. 80, Norwegian Road Research Laboratory, Oslo, Norway, 36 pages.
- Ewins, A. J. (1990). Resistivity Measurements in Concrete. British Journal of NDT, 32(3), 120-126.
- Feliu, S., Andrade, C., Gonzalez, J. A., & Alonso, C. (1996). A New Method for In-situ Measurement of Electrical Resistivity of Reinforced Concrete. Materials and Structures, 29(6), 362-365.
- Ferreira, R. M., & Jalali, S. (2010). NDT Measurements for the Prediction of 28-day Compressive Strength. NDT & E International, 43(2), 55-61.
- Florida DOT FM 5-578. (2004). Method of Test for Concrete Resistivity as an Electrical Indicator of Its Permeability, 226.
- Forster, S.W. (2000). Concrete Durability-Influencing Factors and Testing. Farmington Hills, MI. Durability of Concrete, ACI Committee, Vol. 191, 1-10.
- Gowers, K. R. & Millard, S. G. (1999). Measurement of Concrete Resistivity for Assessment of Corrosion Severity of Steel Using Wenner Technique. ACI Material Journal, 96(5), 536-541.
- Hansson, I. L. H. & Hansson, C. M. (1953). Electrical Resistivity Measurements of Portland Cement Based Materials. Cement and Concrete Research, 13(5), 675-683.
- Hooton, R.D., Thomas, M.D.A., & Stanish, K., (2001). Prediction of Chloride Penetration in Concrete. Federal Highway Administration, Report No. FHWA-RD-00-142.
- Ishida, T., & Li, C. H. (2008). Modeling of Carbonation Based on Thermo-Hygro Physics with Strong Coupling of Mass Transport and Equilibrium in Micro-pore Structure of Concrete. Retrieved from http://www.jsce.or.jp/committee/concrete/e/newsletter/newsletter14/isida.pdf
- Jianyong, L., & Pei, T. (1997). Effect of Slag and Silica Fume on Mechanical Properties of High Strength Concrete. Cement and Concrete Research, 27(6), 833-837.
- Kosmatka, S. H., Kerkhoff, B., Panarese, W. C., MacLeod, N. F., &McGrath, R. J. (2002). Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures, Seventh Canadian Edition. Cement Association of Canada, 227.
- Kessler, R. J., Power, R. G., & Paredes, M. A. (2005). Resistivity Measurements of Water Saturated Concrete as an Indicator of Permeability. Corrosion 2005, Houston, TX, 1-10.
- Kessler, R. J., Power, R. G., Vivas, E., Paredes, M. A., & Virmani, Y.P. (2008). Surface, Resistivity as an Indicator of Concrete Chloride Penetration Resistance. Retrieved from http://concreteresistivity.com/Surface%20Resistivity.pdf
- Lataste, J. F., Sirieix, C., Breysse, D., & Frappa M. (2003). Electrical resistivity measurement applied to cracking assessment on reinforced concrete structures in civil engineering. NDT & E International, 36(6), 383-394.
- Lopez, W., & Gonzalez, J. A. (1993). Influence of the Degree of Pore Saturation on the Resistivity of Concrete and the Corrosion Rate of Steel Reinforcement. Cement and Concrete Research, 23(2), 368-376.
- McCarter, W. J., Starrs, G., Kandasami, S., Jones, R., & Chrisp, M. (2009). Electrode Configuration for Resistivity Measurements on Concrete. ACI Materials Journal, 106(3), 258-264.
- Millard, S. G., Harrison, J. A., & Edwards, A. J. (1989). Measurements of the Electrical Resistivity of Reinforced Concrete Structures for the Assessment of Corrosion Risk. British Journal of NDT, 13(11), 617-621.
- Millard, S. G. & Gowers, K. R. (1991). The Influence of Surface Layers upon the Measurement of Concrete Resistivity. Durability of Concrete, Second International Conference, ACI SP-126, Montreal, Canada, 1197-1220, 228.
- Monfore, G. E. (1968). The Electrical Resistivity of Concrete. Journal of the PCA Research Development Laboratories, 10(2), 35-48.
- Monkman, S. & Shao, Y. (2006). Assessing the Carbonation Behaviour of Cementitious Materials. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 18(6), 768-776.
- Morris, W., Moreno, E. I., & Sagues, A. A. (1996). Practical Evaluation of Resistivity of Concrete in Test Cylinders Using A Wenner Array Probe. Cement and Concrete Research, 26(12), 1779-1787.
- Newlands, M. D., Jones, M. R., Kandasami, S., & Harrison T. A. (2008). Sensitivity of Electrodes Contact Solutions and Contact Pressure in Assessing Electrical Resistivity of Concrete. Materials and Structures, 41(4), 621-632.
- Nokken, M. R. & Hooton, R. D. (2006). Electrical Conductivity as a Prequalification and Quality Control. Concrete International, 28(10), 61-66.
- Parrott, L. J. (1994). Moisture Conditioning and Transport Properties of Concrete Test Specimens. Materials and Structures, 27(8), 460-468.
- Polder, R. B. (2001). Test Methods for on Site Measurement of Resistivity of Concrete – a RILEM TC-154 Technical Recommendation. Construction and Building Materials, (15)2-3, 125-131, 229.
- Pun, P., Kojuncdic, T., Hooton, R.D., Kojundic, T., & Fidjestol P. (1997). Influence of Silica Fume on Chloride Resistance of Concrete. Proceedings of PCI/FHWA International Symposium on High Performance Concrete, New Orleans, Louisiana, 245–256.
- RILEM Technical Committee. (2005). Update of the Recommendation of RILEM TC 189-NEC Non-destructive Evaluation of the Concrete Cover (Comparative Test Part I, Comparative Test of Penetrability Methods). Materials & Structures, 38(284), 895-906.
- Savas B. Z. (1999). Effect of Microstructure on Durability of Concrete (PhD Thesis). North Carolina State University, Department of Civil Engineering, Raleigh NC.
- Sengul, O. & Gjorv, O. E. (2008). Electrical Resistivity Measurements for Quality Control During Concrete Construction. ACI Materials Journal, 105(6), 541-547.
- Sengul, O. & Gjorv, O. E. (2009). Effect of Embedded steel on Electrical Resistivity Measurements on Concrete Structures. ACI Materials Journal, 106(1), 11-18.
- Scrivener, K. L., Crumbie, A. K., & Laugesen P. (2004). The Interfacial Transition Zone (ITZ) Between Cement Paste and Aggregate in Concrete. Interface Science, 12(4), 411- 421, 230.
- Shi, C. (2004). Effect of Mixing Proportions of Concrete on its Electrical Conductivity and the Rapid Chloride Permeability Test (ASTM C1202 or ASSHTO T277) Results. Cement and Concrete Research, 34(3), 537-545.
- Smith, K. M., Schokker, A. J., & Tikalsky P. J. (2004). Performance of Supplementary Cementitious Materials in Concrete Resistivity and Corrosion Monitoring Evaluations. ACI Materials Journal, 101(5), 385-390.
- Stanish, K., Hooton, R. D., & Thomas, M. D. A. (1997). Testing the Chloride Penetration Resistance of Concrete: A Literature Review. Department of Civil Engineering University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. FHWA Contract DTFH61-97-R 00022. Prediction of Chloride Penetration in Concrete.
- Stanish, K., Hooton, R. D., & Thomas, M. D. A. (2004). A Novel Method for Describing Chloride Ion Transport due to an Electrical Gradient in Concrete: Part 1. Theoretical description. Cement and Concrete Research, 34(1), 43-49.
- Stanish, K., Hooton, R. D., & Thomas M. D. A. (2004). A Novel Method for Describing Chloride Ion Transport due to an Electrical Gradient in Concrete: Part 2. Experimental study. Cement and Concrete Research, 34(1), 51-57.