Durability of concrete exposed to sulfate attack under flexural loading and drying–wetting cycles

► Durability of concrete exposed to sulfate under drying–wetting cycles and load is studied. ► The microstructure of interior concrete are determined by using ESEM, XRD, and MIP. ► Load and drying–wetting cycles can both accelerate the sulfate corrosion of concrete. ► The effect of load on the damage of concrete under combined actions depends on the ratio.